Theoretical Assignment

Theoretical Assignment
Write a draft (750-1,000 words) of the Theoretical Foundation (a theory, model, law, or concept underpinning the study) for the research study attached.

File #1
File #2

Locate the Background to the Problem
Dissertation topic: Strategies inner-city educators implement to involve low income parents into the school setting. (Qualitative Case Study)
Dissertation Gap: Future research directions should include further examinations of the role of school climate (including factors related to students and other parents in the schools) in motivating parent involvement among African American parents of children attending middle schools with school safety risks. (Murray, 2014)
Dissertation Problem Statement: It is unknown what strategies inner-city educators use to involve low income parents in the early stages of their children’sacademicdevelopment.

Write a draft (750-1,000 words) of the Theoretical Foundation (a theory, model, law, or concept underpinning the study) for your research study. The draft should include the following:
1. The study’s problem statement resulting from the defined need or gap. This can be taken from the Background to the Problem section that you drafted earlier.
2. A definition and description of each of the theories, models, laws, or concepts that will be the basis for the Theoretical Foundation of the study. Support these ideas with seminal sources.
3. The phenomena and research questions (qualitative studies) for the study.
4. A discussion of how the theory, model, law, or concept undergirds and connects to the research study.

Literature Review Resources
Topic: Strategies inner-city educators implement to involve low income parents into the school setting.
Number Article Information Added to RefWorks? (Y or N)
1. Bibliographic Information
Cicchetti, D., &Rogosch, F. A. (2002). A developmental psychopathology perspective on adolescence. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 70(1), 6. YES
This document on the developmental psychopathology gives a broad outline for the undertaking of the course based on developments that are realized during adolescent basing particularly on understanding continuity and the presence of psychopathology changes during adolescence. The article takes into account the utility of a developmental psychopathology perspective to inform the designs e.g. of research that is used for disciplinary models of development. The book discusses the separation between the normal and the abnormal development during the period enabling us to understand the difference in development courses quickly.
2. Bibliographic Information
El Nokali, N. E., Bachman, H. J., &Votruba-Drzal, E. (2010). Parent involvement and children’s academic and social development in elementary school. Child development, 81(3), 988-1005. YES
This article bases on the study of children problems through case studies on their social and academic developments in their 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades. The findings of the studies showed that the involvement of a child with a parent determines the improvement of the social behavior of the child but not their social skills and also do not predict the changes in achievement. The article outlines that children with highly involved parents in their activities and life, have a social life full of functions and have fewer behavior problems.
3. Bibliographic Information
Goldenberg, C., Gallimore, R., Reese, L., &Garnier, H. (2001). Cause or effect? A longitudinal study of immigrant Latino parents’ aspirations and expectations, and their children’s school performance. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 547-582. YES

The study takes into account the relationship between the children’s performance and the inspiration and aspirations from their parents, with respect to their performance in school and social life. The way a child od raised with respect to the expectations of the parents greatly influences the performance of the child. Based on the case studies on the Latino and American students, conducted, the results showed that parents often desire that their children perform well at all levels of studies. From kindergarten through sixth grade. The study showed the importance of interventions as that improved learning in schools and hence performance by the students.
4. Bibliographic Information
Hoglund, W., Jones, S., Brown, J., &Aber, J. (n.d). The Evocative Influence of Child Academic and Social-Emotional Adjustment on Parent Involvement in Inner-City Schools. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 517-532. YES


The study looks into the models of the directional relationship between parent involvement in schooling and their children adjustment. The way parents contribute to prospective child change. The child adjustment model examines the proposition that children’s adjustment affects potential parent involvement in schooling. Economic hardship also contributed to variation in levels of parent participation and child adjustment, with child adjustment mediating the effects of economic hardship on parent involvement.
5. Bibliographic Information
McNeal, R. B. (1999). Parental involvement as social capital: Differential effectiveness on science achievement, truancy, and dropping out. Social forces, 78(1), 117-144. YES

This study entails how parents involve their kids conceptually and examines how it affects individual outcomes (e.g. sci and behavioral outcomes. This research found that social capital (parent involvement) is associated with enhanced student achievement and less deviant behavior for traditionally advantaged segments of the population. Comparable levels of parent participation in lower socioeconomic status families get comparatively smaller results. The researcher speculates that it may be because the types of contacts reported in these data are reactive and that teachers are more prone to contact parents about behavior problems than about achievement.
6. Bibliographic Information
Kernan, M. (2012). Parental Involvement in Early Learning. A Review of Research, Policy and Good Practice. International Child Development Initiative (ICDI) Leiden on behalf of the Barnard van Leer Foundation, The Hague.

The research was carried out with an aim to examine the impact that parental involvement has on the academic performance of a child and hence determine whether there is need to involve parents in children’s early literacy. The study was conducted on parents and children from different child care centers in Netherlands. The researchers concluded that there is need for parental involvement due to the enormous influence that involvement of parents in children’s early literacy has on children’s academic performance. Parents should acknowledge the role they play on the cognitive development of their children.
Though the degree to which parents and educators should contribute to children’s learning outcomes remain a topic of discussion in the social and educational policy particularly in Netherlands, researchers have indicated that parental involvement contributes a lot to the development a child’s knowledge. According to these studies, children whose parents are more involved in their early childhood literacy experience high academic performance not only in pre-school but also in the rest of the grades. In recent years, researches have presented ample evidence illustrating the importance of parent involvement the development of children’s literacy.
7. Bibliographic Information
Murray, E., McFarland-Piazza, L., & Harrison, L. J. (2015). Changing patterns of parent–teacher communication and parent involvement from preschool to school. Early Child Development and Care, 185(7), 1031-1052.

Link…/276150224_Changing_patterns_of_parent-teacher_communication_and_parent_involvement_from_preschool_to school
The study looks into the nature of parent’s behavior in involvement with the educator’s communication before them enrolling their children to early schooling to understand the different social capital variables and consistencies and changes that might occur and consider over time. The parents who were more engaged in educational activities at home were more involved in their child’s education and more frequently communicated and rated educator’s base on their assessment about them.
8. Bibliographic Information
Murray, K. W., Finigan-Carr, N., Jones, V., Copeland-Linder, N., Haynie, D. L., & Cheng, T. L. (2014). Barriers and Facilitators to School-Based Parent Involvement for Parents of Urban Public Middle School Students. SAGE Open,4(4), 1-12. doi:10.1177/2158244014558030

The study expresses the positive and adverse effects in the studies of their children’s in middle school based on their involvement. The study shows that the higher the probability of parent participation in middle schooling affairs of the child causes more adverse effects than positive ones. The triggers of the effects are determined, and the level of parental involvement damage is also determined.
9. Bibliographic Information
Raffaele, L. M., &Knoff, H. M. (1999). Improving home-school collaboration with disadvantaged families: Organizational principles, perspectives, and approaches. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 448-466.

Ann Using semi-structured interviews, we explored barriers and facilitators to school-based parent involvement (SBPI) in a representation of predominately African American parents (N = 44) whose children attended urban government middle schools. Barriers to SBPI (e.g., perceptions of hostile parent–teacher interactions and aggressive, disrespectful learners in the school) were more commonly described than facilitators (e.g., child requests for involvement). Findings suggest that parents’ motivations for engaging in SBPI may be undermined by a variety of barriers, resulting in low participation. Implications and tailored approaches for enhancing SBPI in this population are presented
10. Bibliographic Information
Wang, M.T. & Sheikh-Khalil, S. (2014)“Does Parental Involvement Matter for Student Achievement and Mental Health in High School.” Child Development 85, no.2:610-625. Social Sciences Citation Index, EBSCOhost



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