role of women during civil war

role of women during civil warU.S. History I Research Paper & Presentation 2016

Assignment: You will be spending the rest of the third term completing a 5-7 page research paper based on primary sources and academic secondary sources. It is your job to identify the arguments made about your chosen topic by other historians and to build on that topic with original primary source analysis of your own. You will be given time in class to work on this project, however, the bulk of it will be completed outside of class.
Objective: To learn how to write a history research paper and to investigate a topic from the Civil War Era of American History in depth.
Potential Topics:
All topics must be during the time period of 1850-1870. Do not research events that happened outside of this timeframe. If you want to research a topic that is not on this list, you must have it approved by me first.
– Role of Women during the Civil War
– Life on the Home Front
– Lincoln’s Campaign/Political Cartoons
– Soldier’s Narratives: letters and diaries
– Literature of the Civil War Era
– Battles, Military History, Leaders
– Reconstruction: Rebuilding the South
– Black experience during wartime
– Photographing the Civil War
– Civil War Medicine
Research Question:
I am not providing a prompt for your research paper. Rather, I am giving you broad topics and allowing you to come up with your own research question.
1. Basic research on the topics that seem interesting to you (e.g. Wikipedia)
2. Look for academic sources on your chosen topic (e.g. Databases, ebooks & print)
3. Once you get a feel for the type of information available, think about a question that you would like to answer with your research. Most likely, this question will cover a smaller scope than your initial topic. Don’t worry, this question can change as you continue your research.
Good research questions should be open-ended, meaning there is not simply one correct answer. Most of the time, these are questions that start with “Why” or “How.”
– Who shot President Lincoln? – bad research question
– What happened the night Lincoln was killed? – better but still not great
– How did the U.S. change after Lincoln was killed? – good question

There will be weekly graded checkpoints (some worth more than others) until the research paper and presentation are due. You will be given class time to work on your projects, but you should expect to do additional work on the paper and presentation each week. Each checkpoint will be worth a certain number of points specified below, but all checkpoints must be completed to receive full credit on the assignment.

Checkpoint 1: Choose a topic and find three citations for at least 3 academic sources for your research (5%)
Checkpoint 2: Show one page of notes organized by the source citations selected from checkpoint 1 and any other academic (secondary) sources. You also must have a research question and a short (½ to 1 page) proposal written, although it can change as you continue your research. (10%)
Checkpoint 3: Thesis and body subheadings (and bulleted outline). You may edit your research question (you do not need to write another proposal) (10%)
Checkpoint 4: Complete Intro paragraph with polished thesis and an outline (with topic sentences and supporting evidence) for the entire paper. You must show an additional two pages of notes or 5 additional note cards (whichever you prefer) with information from your sources. (15%)
Checkpoint 5: First Draft printed (for peer edits) and electronic submitted on Google Classroom. Your first draft MUST include a short historiographical section discussing what scholars said about your topic before you (compare 2-3 historians).

Presentations: In addition to the Research Paper above, you will be responsible for giving a mini-presentation (7-10 minutes) on your research question and what you did for the project. You may incorporate any sources in a powerpoint, make handouts, or do anything you feel will convey the research you did to myself and your peers. You will be on a Panel of scholars who may have similar topics to your own and will respond to Questions from your audience. The expectations for the Presentation will be discussed in class after checkpoint 5 Above.

Research Guides and Databases:
Please see either myself, Mr. Donohue, or Mr. Navins for additional resources.


Other Resources:
? The Valley of the Shadow
? A University of Virginia project that analyzes the Civil War from the viewpoint of citizens in two counties, one Northern and the other Southern, using photographs, census records, newspapers, letters, and diaries.
? Keywords: Confederate, Union, Virginia, Pennsylvania, African Americans, Slaves, Desertion, Medicine, Hospitals, Prisons, Camp Life
? War Times Journal American Civil War
? This site includes excerpts from the memoirs of General U.S. Grant, General John Gordon, General John B. Hood, Lieutenant General James Longstreet, and General William Tecumseh Sherman, as well as orders, telegrams and reports from the navies of the United and Confederate States.
? The Papers of Jefferson Davis (Rice University)
? The site includes a biography of Davis, as well as a bibliography of works about him. Selected primary sources are located under Archives, Documents.
? The Ulysses S. Grant Association (Mississippi State University)
? This site provides access to many primary source documents on Ulysses S. Grant. Search within the “Digitized Items” section.
? Virginia Military Institute Archives
? The VMI Archives has an extensive collection of online primary sources on the Civil War, including:
? Stonewall Jackson Resources
? Includes full-text, original documents and personal papers, timelines, and other biographical resources.
? Civil War Letters, Diaries, Manuscripts
? An extensive collection of primary source material available online in full-text.
? Civil War Resources
? An online collection of resources including primary sources, photographs, biographies and topic overviews.
? Keywords: Confederate, Virginia, Cavalry, Women, Gettysburg, Union, Camp Life, Prisons, Medicine, Hospitals, Manassas, Harper’s Ferry, Spotsylvania, Chancellorsville, Sharpsburg
? EyeWitness to the American Civil War
? This site presented by Ibis Communications includes firsthand accounts of John Brown’s raid, the assassination of President Lincoln, the Gettysburg Address, Sherman’s March and many other important events. Also includes a Georgia plantation owner’s diary that provides insight into life in the South immediately following the defeat of the Confederacy.
? Keywords: John Brown, Fort Sumter, Abraham Lincoln, Assassination, Bull Run, Bread Riot, Gettysburg, Sherman’s March to the Sea, Appomattox
? The American Civil War Homepage
? This web site links to sources of excellent primary materials. A subject index makes it easy to access a whole range of issues that were the subject of either Senate or House debates in both the pre- and post-Civil War period. This site also has an extensive Civil War music section, providing the lyrics to many popular tunes of that period, along with various other primary sources—letters, regimental histories, and biographies.
? Antietam on the Web
? This web site includes detailed campaign and battle maps, a list of the units and participants in the battles, all 315 of the commanders’ after-action reports, photographs and other primary source material about the battle.
? Harper’s Weekly, 1857-1912 (free content provided by Alexander Street Press)
? The Presidential Elections: Cartoons from Harper’s Weekly and Other Leading Journals
? A Sampler of Civil War Literature
? Cartoons of the Civil War
? Includes information and cartoons from Harper’s Weekly on the Civil War in general, as well as on Slavery and Black America from 1857-1874, the Ku Klux Klan hearings, and the Reconstruction.
? Duke University Libraries Digital Collections
? Women and the Homefront
? Rose O’Neal Greenhow, a Confederate Spy
? Sarah E. Thompson, a Union Spy
? The Letters of Three Slaves: Hannah Valentine, Lethe Jackson, and Vilet Lester
? The Diary of a Girl living in Union-occupied Tennessee
? Historic American Sheet Music
? Click “subject” tab and browse under “United States–History–Civil War, 1861-1865–Songs and music” and “Confederate States of America–Songs and music.”
? Documenting the American South (The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
? This site provides access to digitized primary materials that offer Southern perspectives on American history and culture. Some sections of interest include: First Person Narratives of the American South; North American Slave Narratives; and the Southern Homefront, 1861-1865.
? Civil War Primary Sources (Civil War Trust)
? Includes full-text of official records; addresses and speeches; acts, bills and orders; military correspondence and documents; personal correspondence and narratives; prints and photos; and maps.
? The Civil War in Missouri (Missouri’s Civil War Heritage Foundation)
? This site includes battle animations of the Battle of Centralia and the Battle of Island Mound.
? Letters from an Iowa Soldier in the Civil War
? A collection of letters written by Newton Robert Scott, Private, Company A, of the 36th Infantry, Iowa Volunteers (“the boys of Monroe County.”)
? Voices of Civil War Veterans (Oakland University)
? Includes selected letters and diary entries by two soldiers, Seth Streeter (Union) and Thomas Hartful Moore (Confederate), as well as other official military documents.
? Civil War Prints and Ephemera (The Library Company of Philadelphia Digital Collections)
? Includes images of Civil War recruiting posters, hospitals, and military camps.
? Lee and Jackson Resources (The Museum of the Confederacy)
? Includes letters and documents, artifacts, photographs and portraits relating to Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson.
? The Avalon Project (Yale Law School)
? A digital library of documents relevant to the fields of Law, History, Economics, Politics, Diplomacy and Government.
? 19th century documents: 1800-1899
? Confederate States of America: Documents
? Harvard University Library Open Collections Program
? Women Working, 1800-1930
? Search for topics such as “Civil War nurse”
? Immigration
? Search for topics such as “Civil War” or “Confederate States of America.”
? North Carolina Civil War Sesquicentennial. Civil War Resources: North Carolina Digital Collections (North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources)
? Includes primary sources (mostly letters) related to specific battles, desertion, medical care, food, guerrilla fighting, supplies and many other topics.
? Civil War: Photographs, Manuscripts, and Imprints, DeGolyer Library (Southern Methodist University Central University Libraries Digital Collections)
? Provides a sample of the photographs, images, albums, and more, illustrating both the Confederate and Union sides of the war. There are many portrait cartes de visite of Union and Confederate generals, officers, and soldiers, with a particular focus Texas-related Civil War images. The collection includes images of slave children, the destruction of war, and women left at home while their relatives were off fighting.
? A College Divided: Maryland Agricultural College and the Civil War
? The Maryland Agricultural College, forerunner of the University of Maryland, College Park, had scarcely opened its doors when the Civil War began. This exhibit highlights the lives of just a few of the students, faculty, administrators, stockholders, and trustees who attended the college during this time.
? Civil War Resources (Missouri Secretary of State, Missouri Digital Heritage Project)
? This site provides instant access to more than 500,000 digitized Civil War records, including military records, historical newspapers, court documents of Frank and Jesse James, and images of William Quantrill’s Guerrillas, as well as videos on topics such as Missouri’s complicated role in the Civil War.
? Civil War (Chicago Public Library)
? An online exhibit of the items in the Civil War Collection of the Chicago Public Library, including photographs from George Barnard’s photographs of Sherman’s Campaign.
? Civil War in the American South (Digital Library of Georgia)
? A portal to the digital collections from the Civil War era (1850-1865) held by members of the Association of Southern Research Libraries (ASERL). This site currently links to more than 9,226 items from 27 libraries, providing ready access to important primary sources, including letters from soldiers and images from Andersonville.
? South Carolina and the Civil War (Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina, Digital Collections)
? A collection of primary source materials relating to South Carolina’s participation in the Civil War, including letters, envelopes or “covers,” and sheet music, as well as materials portraying the “Lost Cause.”
? Civil War, 1861-1865 (New York State Library)
? Includes letters from soldiers, speeches, military reports from Gettysburg, circulars and broadsides relating to the Civil War.
? Civil War Archive (University of Mississippi Libraries)
? An online collection of primary source materials including correspondence, diaries, images and field reports, the Civil War Archive adds to the narrative of the War, both on the field and home front. These materials document troop movements, social conditions, battles, the home front and an extensive variety of topics. The collection also includes materials relating to the Antebellum South and the Reconstruction era. Browseable by subject.
? Civil War Diaries and Letters (Civil War Diaries and Letters Digital Collection, The University of Iowa Libraries)
? Includes holdings of books, letters, pamphlets, and memorabilia that explore the life and legacy of Abraham Lincoln, as well as a variety of letters and diaries from soldiers, nurses, and supply administrators. The collections also includes three diaries written by children.
? American Civil War Collections: Letters and Diaries (University of Delaware Library Digital Collections)
? This digital collection many primary sources related to the American Civil War, including letters, prints, documents, photographs and Abraham Lincoln materials. Some items of interest Alexander Gardner Photographs of Lincoln Conspirators and the letters and diaries of Delawareans who served in the war on the side of the Union, as well as the Personal diary of the Reverend Samuel Tupper, a relief worker for the U.S. Christian Commission, a Union relief organization during the Civil War.
? The Making of America (Cornell University Library)
? The Civil War Documents
? Provides full-text access to all of the volumes of The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, by the U.S. War Department. This work contains the formal daily reports from Union and Confederate commanding officers, records of the first seizures of property in the Southern States, and records of all military operations in the field, with correspondence, orders, and returns. It also includes The Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies.
? Journals
? Provides full-text of these journals published contemporaneously with the Civil War era: Scientific American,The Atlantic Monthly, Harper’s, The Continental Monthly, andThe Old Guard.
? eHistory Primary Sources Section (Ohio State University)
? Provides full-text access to all of the volumes and series of The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, by the U.S. War Department. Searchable by keyword.
? Charting a More Perfect Union (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
? This site includes an historical collection of maps and documents prepared by the U.S. Coast Survey during the Civil War, as well as the full-text of secret documents written by U.S. Coast Survey supervisor Alexander Dallas Bache and used by the Union Blockade Board. There is full-text access to the report, Military and Naval Service of the United States Coast Survey 1861-1865, and the report, The U.S. Coast Survey in the Civil War.
? Illinois during the Civil War (Northern Illinois University Libraries)
? Toward the top of this page are buttons to search text, image, sound, and interactive resources. Sources include letters, diaries and newspapers from soldiers and civilians from Illinois.
? American Civil War Collection at the Electronic Text Center (University of Virginia Library)
? Includes letters and diaries, as well as official government records, newspapers, and other texts (poetry, fiction, etc.) related to the Civil War.
? Civil War Era Collection at Gettysburg College
? A digital repository offering a sampling of a Gettysburg College’s collection of 19th century resources that includes political cartoons, letters, photographs, maps, and artifacts relating to the Civil War Era.
? Civil War Letters (Hunter Library Digital Collections, Western Carolina University)
? This collection of letters includes those written by soldiers from western North Carolina who served with Confederate regiments. Letters to and from family and friends are the most prevalent in Hunter Library’s collections. There are, however, a number of letters to James H. Cathey, a community leader, from individuals requesting his assistance due to personal hardships on the home front or from politicians. About two-thirds of the letters presented are from 1862-1863.
? Civil War Collection (Hamilton College Library)
? A variety of Civil War materials, including letters, diaries, and military records relating to the people and history of Oneida County, New York. A large portion of these resources relate to the 117th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment mustered in on August 8, 1862 at Oneida county.
? United States Civil War Collection (State Library of Pennsylvania)
? Contains a wide variety of full-text primary sources and images, including speeches, broadsides and recruitment posters. See also: Civil War: Resources and Instruction for teachers and Learners (Pennsylvania Department of Education), which includes diaries, historical newspapers, maps, and photographs.
? WakeSpace: A Digital Archive of Wake Forest University
? Confederate Broadsides — more than 250 examples of poems written by Southerners and Confederate sympathizers. Includes some pamphlets, clippings, and broadsides.
? Lipe Family Civil War Letters — 27 letters by seven different Confederate soldiers.
? Herbert E. Valentine Civil War Diary — Salem, Massachusetts native who served in the Union Army, 23rd Massachusetts, his memoirs describe his army experiences in Virginia, N. Carolina, and S. Carolina.
? George L. Bright Civil War Diary — diary of a band member of the 46th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, an infantry regiment in the Union.
? Beyond Face Value: Depictions of Slavery in Confederate Currency (A Project of the U.S. Civil War Center)
? This exhibit focuses on the Southern currency notes that featured images of slavery and were issued and circulated in the South during the Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction Eras. Notes were issued by the Confederate government, state governments, merchants, and railroad companies.
? Wisconsin Goes to War: Our Civil War Experience (University of Wisconsin Digital Archives Center)
? A collection of first person narrative accounts of Wisconsin soldiers and citizens, including letters, diaries, poems and other records. Many of the included documents are handwritten while others consist of a typed transcription for which originals may or may not be available.
? Wisconsin Historical Society
? Manuscripts from Wisconsin Soldiers and Citizens during the Civil War
? A digital collection made by the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh Archives and Area Research Center. The Civil War manuscripts are primarily from Wisconsin soldiers and citizens, documenting the Wisconsin Civil War experience.
? Wisconsin in the Civil War Era — includes primary sources relating to the Civil War home front; The Iron Brigade, Old Abe and Military Affairs; Abolition and other reforms; and Wisconsin and the Republican Party.
? American Civil War Manuscript Guides (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)
? Primary sources include the memoirs of a Confederate surgeon, as well as the letters from soldiers in the Union and Confederate armies. There are also documents relating to the Virginia Secession Convention.
? Manuscripts of the American Civil War (University of Notre Dame, Rare Books and Special Collections)
? Letters and Correspondences — Includes a variety of correspondence, including a collection of letters that detail the course of the war from a Quaker perspective.
? Andersonville/Wirz Collection — a collection of records and personal papers pertaining to the Confederate prisoner of war camp at Andersonville, Sumter County, Georgia, and to the commander of the prison stockade, Captain Henry Wirz.
? Diaries and Journals
? Discover (Library of Michigan and the Archives of Michigan)
? Includes manuscripts, service records, death records, and photographs.
? Civil War Manuscripts (State Historical Society of Missouri)
? Includes a variety of letters and manuscripts regarding the war from a Missouri perspective.
? University of Maryland, University Libraries Digital Collections
? A searchable collection of digital files containing original photographs, correspondence, and manuscripts
? The Massachusetts Historical Society
? Massachusetts in the Civil War — Includes eyewitness accounts of Blair’s Bluff, the Peninsula Campaign, Cedar Mountain, and Antietam.
? The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment
? New Hampshire Historical Society
? Includes a sampling of letters written by Private Edward F. Hall while serving in the 3rd N.H. Regiment.
? Digital Collections at the Connecticut State Library
? This searchable database of primary sources includes letters, diary entries, historical newspapers, and photographs.
? Civil War One Fifty (Kansas City Star)
? Includes letters from Union and Confederate soldiers, a widow, and a black soldier writing to his enslaved daughters.
? Civil War Research and Commemoration (U.S. Army Center for Military History)
? Includes letters from soldiers (under “archival materials”), artwork and photographs, and brochures.
? Secession Era Editorials (Furman University)
? Contains editorials from partisan newspapers in the late Antebellum period.
? Modern History Sourcebook: US Civil War (Fordham University)
? A portal linking to a wide variety of primary sources throughout the Internet.
? Civil War, 1861-1865 (Digital Collections, East Carolina University)
? Contains correspondence, diaries, song books, military records, photographs, maps and other primary source material.

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