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Lect23 Spread of IR


Spread of industrial revolution

Paper topics due this week: Nov 28

Britain pioneered the industrial revolution

New machine-based technologies: textiles, iron and iron products, steam engine; railroad after 1830; steam ships; textile machinery

Where did these techniques spread? Why there? (Landes, Chap 16)

Spread of IR: Europe

Per capita income figures are a good indicator of spread of modern techniques

Early modernizers (by 1860) in order (Landes, p 232); Switz, Neth, Belgium, France, W Germ

Next group: Norway, Denmark, Sweden

Lagging behind: Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria

Still farther: Poland, Russia, Balkans

Medieval legacy

Status of peasantry (“feudal”)

Organization of manufacture (guilds, protection)

Boundaries and barriers (specialization: free trade destroys monopoly)

Comparative Advantage

Allen says the IR occurred in Britain because of its factor prices: the innovations were profitable there, but not elsewhere

Why did they become profitable on the continent?

Why did coal replace charcoal in France, in the production of iron?

Comparative Advantage

Britain shifted its policies from mercantilism to free trade

Why not free trade in the follower countries? What is the intellectual case for tariffs to promote industrialization?

Medieval legacy

Geographical factors: soil and rainfall

Political stability and intellectual freedom

France, Belgium, Netherlands

Spain, Portugal, Italy

Austria, Poland, Hungary; Russia

Medieval legacy

Scandinavian countries (Landes, Table 16.2, p 248)


Ascent of the Rich

Allen pp. 40-47. The club of rich countries, sometimes called the convergence group: Western Europe and British offshoots

What were the new industries after 1850?

Where were the inventions made? In which countries?

Standard model

What did govts do to promote industrialization?

See Reader, p. 26

Economic development in Rest of World

In later classes, we’ll consider why the standard model did not work in most of the Rest of the World

China and India: see Marks, pp. 131-35

Japan: Landes, Chaps 22-23 and Koyama article on Japan and China in 19th century

Latin America, Middle East

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