Please finish asap
Please finish asap
Lect23 Spread of IR
Spread of industrial revolution
Paper topics due this week: Nov 28
Britain pioneered the industrial revolution
New machine-based technologies: textiles, iron and iron products, steam engine; railroad after 1830; steam ships; textile machinery
Where did these techniques spread? Why there? (Landes, Chap 16)
Spread of IR: Europe
Per capita income figures are a good indicator of spread of modern techniques
Early modernizers (by 1860) in order (Landes, p 232); Switz, Neth, Belgium, France, W Germ
Next group: Norway, Denmark, Sweden
Lagging behind: Spain, Portugal, Italy, Austria
Still farther: Poland, Russia, Balkans
Status of peasantry (“feudal”)
Organization of manufacture (guilds, protection)
Boundaries and barriers (specialization: free trade destroys monopoly)
Allen says the IR occurred in Britain because of its factor prices: the innovations were profitable there, but not elsewhere
Why did they become profitable on the continent?
Why did coal replace charcoal in France, in the production of iron?
Britain shifted its policies from mercantilism to free trade
Why not free trade in the follower countries? What is the intellectual case for tariffs to promote industrialization?
Geographical factors: soil and rainfall
Political stability and intellectual freedom
France, Belgium, Netherlands
Spain, Portugal, Italy
Austria, Poland, Hungary; Russia
Scandinavian countries (Landes, Table 16.2, p 248)
Ascent of the Rich
Allen pp. 40-47. The club of rich countries, sometimes called the convergence group: Western Europe and British offshoots
What were the new industries after 1850?
Where were the inventions made? In which countries?
What did govts do to promote industrialization?
See Reader, p. 26
Economic development in Rest of World
In later classes, we’ll consider why the standard model did not work in most of the Rest of the World
China and India: see Marks, pp. 131-35
Japan: Landes, Chaps 22-23 and Koyama article on Japan and China in 19th century
Latin America, Middle East