Organizational adaptation and organizational culture
In your follow-on responses, provide constructive critiques of your colleagues’ choices of theoretical framework(s) and suggest additional theories they might consider.
• Read the original post written by other students;
• To write about 200 words with academic reference or theoretical frameworks for the solution;
• No plagiarism, fabrication or direct citation without referencing;
• Referencing style must be in Harvard style, if it is an internet source link must be incl.;
• There are 4 posts needed to be critiqued / advised, and in total 800 words;
• Good English expression without grammar errors;
• Based on the above requirement to compose solution (suggestion) for the authors.
A theory is made up basically from concepts and causal relationships that relate to the concepts (Whetten, 1989) made up of essential elements like; What, How, why, which when put together, are descriptive and explanatory which makes the ingredients for a simple theory.
Thus, in order to explain, understand and predict phenomena, theories are formulated (USC Library, 2014). Theories are used beyond that to confront and extend the existing body of knowledge. Theory forms the underlying part of a research and the theoretical framework defines the link between the researcher and existing knowledge as well as generalizing about various aspects of the phenomenon being studies and to identify the limits to the generalizations.
Theory of Planning, Organizations Behavior, Organizational Adaptation and Organizational Culture:
The author seeks to identify The Challenges Faced by Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Operating In The Nigerian Oil Industry in Utilizing Project Management Practices And Procedures On Project Delivery.
Turner (1993) argues that scope management is the basis for project management in that there has to be a sufficient amount of work completed, no unnecessary work is done and the work done should be broken down to smaller chunks referred to as tasks and activities, are defined by the business purpose. The research seeks to understand how SMEs tackle the challenge of scope management using project management methodology. This can be explained by looking at the management structure. Johnston & Brennan (1996) presented that management-as-organizing theory assumes that in response to a situation; human activity is inherently situated thus implying that the management structure plays an important role in the success of project management.
SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) are companies engaged in an economic activity whose personnel numbers fall below a certain limit. They may vary from self-employed persons to family businesses, partnerships or associations engaged in activities ranging from handicrafts to manufacturing. Companies whose workforce umbers fall below a certain limit are classified as SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) as explained by European Commission (2005) with less than 250 staff and, a turnover of less than €50 million for medium and fewer than 50 employees and a turnover of less than €10 million for small enterprises. As argued by Aquil, (2003) these SMEs often do not employ specialist project managers, and their projects are managed by people with other primary job functions, thus these types of companies do not tend to use the established standards of project management.
In the context of this research, the author seeks to understand if the organizational culture and organizational behavior of SMEs influences and impacts on their choice on the use and effectiveness of project management practices. Pinto and Prescott (1990) show in their study that critical factors like top management support, goal clarity, clear project plans and communication point to organizational issues and organizational behavior as reasons for project success or failure. Cooke- Davies, (2002) argues that factors like mature management processes, sharing of roles and responsibilities, norms, values, good risk management, are the structures upon which an organization’s success culture is built.
Miles et al (1978) point out that organizations are known to frequently modify and redefine the mechanisms through which they achieve their organizational objectives by restructuring roles, relationships and managerial processes. This dynamic process is complex surrounding a countless decisions and behaviors at several organizational levels. This organizational adaptation theory will shed more light on the research as it draws hugely on managerial influences, employee interaction, communication and decision making.
We understand that project management practices and procedures are best practices and if implemented properly will ensure projects will be completed successfully. Thus the argument for SMEs lies in their organizational culture, structure, organizational behavior and organizational adaptation. By looking into the role of these, the researcher hopes to draw conclusions on how the challenges SMEs will face implementing project management structures and if the organizational structure acts as a limiting factor to achieving project success by use of project management methodology.
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