Literature Review on Nationalism in Southeast Asia
Literature Review on Nationalism in Southeast Asia
I want a revised version of literature review (below)on Nationalism in Southeast Asia using most of the resources in the following and answer these 5 points. Some resources are already uploaded in my previous order No. 81605960.
(1) With colonialism, Southeast Asian societies experienced important change;
(2) traditional methods of initiating change or reform were not effective in the new systems,
(3) elites sought to improve conditions through Western models of political action
(4) colonial ideas of race and identity were adopted,
(5) new movements based on fixed notions of identity were adopted by local elites and reformers.
Nationalism in Southeast Asia (My Old Version)
The initial concept of nationalism was based on the principle that people who shared cultural characteristics constituted a distinct nationality, but later the establishment of governments under the reforms brought people with heterogeneous characteristics of a particular territory. Benedict Anderson in his seminal work Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism argues that nations are “imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion”. The nation is imagined as limited no matter how large the population involved in the imagination for other nations always exist beyond the boundaries of the nation. And these imagined communities uphold sovereignties and exist as horizontal comradeship regardless of internal social dynamics and inequalities within the communities. (Anderson, 2006)
The twentieth century is the era of transitioning in Asia; Anthony Reid (2009) relates what the Japanese did in China and some parts of Asia, arguing that they greatly affected the modern history of Asian nations. The boundaries that had been made by imperial constructs were now converted into nation states, which were done according to the world system. Asia had a different system initially from what other parts of the world had, but with the emergence of sovereign states that was widely referred to as Westphalia system. Reid argues that people would have thought that after the collapse of empires, ethnically defined states would arise. The view of nationality as ethnic-based – meaning people with the same background and cultural beliefs – is widely shared by many people in Southeast Asia (Reid, 2009).
The form of nationalism in Europe had in several ways contributed to the nationalism in Southeast Asia. The states copied the models that had worked in Europe, where most of the transformation had taken place with the boundaries traversing the ethnic or cultural borders. It is worth noting that the shift from the culture-based nationalism could not be easily achieved without the input of the educated elites in the society (Milner, 1995). Cultural nationalism in the region is common, one example is the name change of Thailand, it was viewed as a move to foster ethnic chauvinism, and the new name reflected the ideals of cultural nationalism (Reynolds, 2006). The attachment of the names to their ethnicities sought to create some sense of belonging and to draw a border for non-members, making room for only people of the same ethnicity, but the constructs have long been destroyed. Thailand is one of the examples of how people could use a particular language to serve as the national language.
In the colonial era, other parts of Southeast Asia had been developed around imagined communities; the communities had been useful in countering colonial rules. Religion played a role in nationalism especially in the early twentieth century. The hegemonic knowledge structure had been opposed in many other parts, and as Penny Edwards (2007) says, the western system was deemed interruptive to the existing monasteries, heightening the resistance from the locals. Violence is another factor that had been noted when people felt threatened they resorted to violence. Pongyis (Buddhist monks in Burma) like U Ottama in the 1920s had been documented to resort to violence even during the colonial times, which was evident during riots in the past. (Cady, 1958) The violence can be attributed to the current mistrust of the government: the Arakanese do not entirely trust the regime to safeguard them, and, therefore, they resorted to violence to gain some sense of security. (Shwe Lu Maung, 1989) [What is this paragraph trying to accomplish? How does this discussion contribute to the overall proposal. What is being established by this discussion on nationalism in SEA? What it should be telling the reader is how has nationalism been thought about in SEA and what do you think about it in relation to your work.
Resources to use
1. Nationalism in Southeast Asia: If the People Are with Us by Nicholas Tarling
2. Luang Wichit Wathakan and the Creation of a Thai Identity by Scot Barmé
3. National Identity and its Defenders by Craig J. Raynolds
4. Seditious Histories Contesting Thai and Southeast Asian Pasts by Craig J. Reynolds
5. The Invention of Politics in Colonial Malaya: Contesting Nationalism and the Expansion of the Public Sphere by Anthony Crothers Milner
6. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation by Thongchai Winichakul
7. Cambodge: The Cultivation of a Nation, 1860-1945 by Penny Edwards
8. Engineers of Happy Land: Technology and Nationalism in a Colony by Rudolf Mrázek
9. Bangsa and Umma: Development of People-Grouping Concepts in Islamized Southeast Asia by Yamamoto Hiroyuki (Ed)
1. The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, Southeast Asia, and the World by Benedict Anderson
2. Imperial Alchemy: Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia by Anthony Reid
10. Chaiyo! – King Vajiravudh and the Development of Thai Nationalism by Walter F. Vella
11. Critical Questions on Nationalism: A Historian’s View by Reynaldo C. Ileto
12. An Age in Motion: Popular Radicalism in Java, 1912-1926 by Takashi Shiraishi
13. The Origins of Malay Nationalism by William R. Roff
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