Exercise 2: reliability and validity/ must use spss

Exercise 2: Reliability and Validity 

For this exercise, your task is to estimate the reliability and validity of a measure of Need for Cognition (nCog; Cacioppo & Petty, 1982; Cacioppo, Petty, & Kao, 1984).  

An SPSS data file is included in the assignment folder, with responses from 294 college students. Within the data file you will find raw scores for nCog items, as well as composite scores for several other variables (see page 2 for descriptions).  

Your tasks for this assignment are described below. To answer each of these questions, run the analyses using SPSS and report relevant information in your write-up (i.e., the reliability or validity coefficient). Write a report explaining your findings for each of the questions above. Provide an interpretation of what the results mean. In other words, explain your findings in sufficient detail so that another person could understand what you examined and why.  

Reliability 

  1. Estimate Coefficient Alpha for nCog using the items in the data set.  
  2. Estimate test-retest reliability for nCog – data were collected 2 weeks after the original nCog data (NCOG_T2). 

Criterion-Related Validity  

  1. Report the criterion-related validity estimate for nCog using College GPA (CollegeGPA). 
  2. Report the criterion-related validity estimate for nCog using Student Satisfaction (StudentSat). 
  3. Report the incremental validity estimate of nCog above and beyond High School GPA (HS_GPA) and ACT Scores (ACT) in predicting College GPA (CollegeGPA).  
  4. Report the incremental validity estimate of nCog above and beyond High School GPA (HS_GPA) and ACT Scores (ACT) in predicting Student Satisfaction (StudentSat).  

Construct-Related Validity  

  1. Report convergent validity evidence using Intrinsic Motivation (IntMot) and Mastery Goal Orientation (MGO).  
  2. Report discriminant validity evidence using Extrinsic Motivation (ExtMot), Performance Approach Goal Orientation (AppGO), Performance Avoid Goal Orientation (AvdGO), and Social Desirability (SocDes).    

 

Variables in Data Set/Assignment 

Need for Cognition –described as a drive to understand situations and the world around us (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982; Cacioppo et al., 1984). People with a high need for cognition tend to enjoy problem solving, abstract reasoning, and enjoy complex situations/problems. Items were rated on a 5-point scale (1 = Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree), and higher scores indicate higher levels of the construct. Items were taken from Cacioppo et al. (1984), in the attached article.  Note that several of these items are reverse-scored. You will need to re-code them prior to running the analyses.  

High School GPA – is cumulative, high school grade point average, on a 4.0 scale. Scores were taken from admissions records.  

ACT Scores – ACT scores were gathered from university records.  

College GPA – is cumulative, college grade point average on a 4.0 scale. This was taken from university records. In this study College GPA was collected one year after Need for Cognition was measured. 

Student Satisfaction – is the extent that students are satisfied with their experiences at the university. Six items were written for the purpose of conducting this study. Cronbach’s alpha for this scale was .90. In this study student satisfaction was collected one year after Need for Cognition was measured.  

Academic Motivation focuses on the reasons that students go to college. This is based on Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000). For the purposes of this data collection ten items were written to measure intrinsic motivation and ten items were written to measure extrinsic motivation.  

  • Intrinsic Motivation – is based on a drive to learn and accumulate knowledge. The process of learning itself is internally motivating for individuals with a high level of intrinsic motivation. Coefficient alpha for this scale was .92. 
  • Extrinsic Motivation – is based on the anticipation of some other, external reward, Individuals with a high level of intrinsic motivation are less interested in learning itself, but motivated because with a college degree they are more likely to obtain a high-paying job or promotion at work. Coefficient alpha for this scale was .87. 

Goal Orientation – reflects the purpose, or type of goal that a person aims to achieve when pursuing a particular task (Elliot et al., 1999). This can be composed of mastery goal orientation, performance approach goal orientation, and performance avoid goal orientation. Seven items were written to measure each of the three dimensions below.  

  • Mastery Goal Orientation – has a focus on improving oneself as a function of task pursuit, and is often associated with deep-level processing and drive to learn and understand material (e.g., expanding one’s knowledge). Coefficient alpha for this scale was .90. 
  • Performance Approach Goal Orientation – is associated with achieving positive outcomes and successful task accomplishment. However, this is more often associated with surface-level processing, with a focus on simply obtaining task outcomes (e.g., getting a good grade). Coefficient alpha for this scale was .83. 
  • Performance Avoid Goal Orientation – is also focused on achieving outcomes, but specifically on avoiding failure or negative outcomes. Instead of focusing on learning material or getting a favorable grade or expanding one’s knowledge, the focus remains on not failing a class, for example.   Coefficient alpha for this scale was .89. 

Social Desirability – involves providing what would be perceived as favorable, or socially desirable, responses (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). The KR20 internal consistency estimate for this scale was .87.  
 

References 

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116-131.  

Cacioppo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Kao, C. F. (1984). The efficient assessment of need for cognition. Journal of Personality Assessment, 3, 306-307.  

Crowne, D.P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354. 

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. 

Elliott, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Gable, S. (1999). Achievement goals, study strategies, and exam performance: A mediational analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 549-563.  

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.  

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees


We value our customers, and so ensure that our papers are 100 percent original. Our Team of professionals does not miss the mark; they ensure that step by step each paper is written uniquely. We never duplicate or work as we compare papers rest assured. We deliver our work a day before time to ensure that you don’t miss your deadlines. It is not only doing the work but delivering it at the right time. We capture the consequences of late remittances. .

Money-back guarantee

We value customer satisfaction here at popularessaywriters.com and make sure that you get the best value for your Money. It happens that sometimes you can pay twice for your order or may want to cancel it, or you feel that it doesn’t meet your requirements; our money back guarantee will give you the opportunity to get back your money. We will also refund 100% of money paid double. In case your paper does not satisfy your requirements , we request that you notify us via writing within 2 days otherwise on the third day we will assume that you have been satisfied. Do all your correspondences through our email address popularessaywriters@gmail.com.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

At popularessaywriters.com, our professional writers know the consequence plagiarism does for our clients. We have updated software’s such as article checker and copyscape to check for originality of the custom papers before submission of the final paper to the you. Our guarantee to the customer is that we will write 100% original papers for them that are quality, timely and of low cost. We have experienced professional and competent PhD writers who will write quality custom papers for you..

Read more

Free-revision policy

. At popularessaywriters.com, we are proud to provide top-quality Essay writing service to our esteemed customers. We are ready to take up that challenging academic assignment that is giving you sleepless nights and simplify it for you according to your desired requirements. We are willing to revise your paper if it does not meet your requirements. At popularessaywriters.com, we do not compromise with quality; thus, we offer unlimited free revisions until the customer is satisfied with their custom paper. Our unlimited free revision services are provided under the following terms:.. .

Read more

Privacy policy

Popularessawriters.com knows that client’s information is an essential tool for our company. It means that whatever the client requests from our service is kept strictly confidential. It means that whoever writes for this company understands the terms and conditions hence you should not be worried because you will never see your work somewhere else...

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

Rest assured that we will always be attentive to your needs and requirements. We belief in the phrase treat your neighbour as you would want them to treat you. We leave nothing to chance and always look forward to a good interaction with each other.. .

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency