Essay about sapphire materials

Essay about sapphire materials

Write a 8 pages essay about the following outline-


Title: Sapphire Materials

Abstract: Sapphire Materials are single-crystal components of aluminum oxide that are largely commercialized as ceramic materials, following their characteristic hardness and optical properties.

I. Introduction

A. The single aluminum oxide crystals of sapphire can be grown or manufactured by two processes. They are the deposition and the melting processes. However, sapphire made from melting is more common than sapphire made from deposition.

II. Materials

A. The sapphire crystals that are made from either deposition or melting are normally combined with other elements in order to enhance their physical and chemical characteristics. This is a process commonly known as doping. The resulting elements are known as sapphire dopants.

i. Titanium-doped sapphire

a. After heating, this material shows sufficient concentration.

ii. Chromium and titanium dopants

a. They are commonly used for lasers and lasing rods

III. Material properties

A. The single-crystal nature of sapphire makes it anisotropic.

B. Sapphire materials are transparent

C. Sapphire materials are hard in nature and posses high rates of thermal conductivity.

IV. Processing

A. Melting

i. A seed crystal is immersed into a melt, and then removed slowly to form a single-crystal ingot or boule.

B. Deposition

i. This process involves alumina powder that is deposited into a hydroxen flame.

V. Applications

A. The uses of sapphire may include; optical windows, laser optics, lasing rods, lenses, micro-optics, reflectors, dummy wafers, silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) substrates, fixtures for high-temperature or high-pressure equipment, carrier plates or substrates for blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes, high speed integrated circuit (IC) chip substrates, microwave plasma tubes, flash lamp tubes, infrared (IR) detectors, and fiber optic lenses.

B. The hardness property of sapphire makes it applicable for jewelry and in wear parts.

VI. References

[1] MolTech GmbH Molecular Technology – Sapphire

[2] Moulton, Peter. “Ti-doped sapphire: tunable solid-state laser.” Optics News8.6 (1982): 9-9.

[3] Saint-Gobain Crystals – Sapphire Components

[4] Schmid, Frederick, and Dennis J. Viechnicki. Growth of sapphire disks from the melt by a gradient furnace technique. No. AMMRC-TR-70-11. ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTOWN MA, 1970.

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