The appearance and setting out of assignments or presentations, is a component of the Unit Assessment Guidelines. So also you will find criteria relating to mastery of language and expression. Communication competencies are a degree requirement too. The purpose of this document is just to provide some hints on how to better present work, using report format. It is not the same as clinical report format. This paper is about documents as an alternative to essays. This is how most Australian Commonwealth and State government departments present their documents.
This paper should be considered ‘work in progress’ and it will be continually updated. As I find frequently occurring errors in student’s work I will use them (anonymously of course) to show how problems can be corrected.
Firstly see the Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers. This held at the University libraries in open reserve. It is not an expensive book to buy.
(2002) Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers. Stafford, Queensland: John Wiley and Sons, Australia. ISBN 2002 070163648 3
2.1 Section Headings
ALL PAGES MUST BE NUMBERED IN WORK SUBMITTED EXCEPT THE ASSIGNMENT COVER PAGE. YOU MUST ALSO INSERT YOUR NAME, STUDENT NUMBER, UNIT NUMBER AND NAME INTO THE FOOTER OF ALL WORK SUBMITTED TO vUWS.
Use an assignment cover page – this is a UWS requirement for all written work and do not forget to put one on handouts or short papers. You MUST tick the declarations. Although not a Turnitin requirement many unit co-ordinators require this because of details of contact information- especially useful for external and blended learning units.
This summarises the content of your paper. An executive summary covers ALL the content ie topic, definitions, rationale, issues covered but also includes a summary of findings, all the main points, recommendations and implications of these recommendations eg costings, major changes in service delivery, etc. The executive summary (ES) should reflect the content requirements of the assignment you are submitting in summary form. Note it is not the same as an abstract, which and usually only hints at findings. The ES states what you found not what you intend to cover in the assignment.
An ES must stand alone. It is a separate page for this reason. It is intended as an alternative source of information to the whole paper. Often it is printed as a separate document. Executives or management may read this one (or two pages if a large document) only to make a resource allocation decision. They may wish to check some details and not read the whole paper. Note that an ES comes before the contents page. It is given number i.
An ES is not used for a very short paper or a handout eg two pages!
An ES may include references but they are acknowledged in the ES ie it has its own list of references or footnoted references. Any reference used in the ES if re-used in text must also be included in the references section of the full report.
Number and list all section headings and use these in the text- and obviously the numbers will match. Include page numbers where the sections can be found. You are more likely to type a report and then set out the contents page (CP) afterwards. In fact, word will do this automatically for you. It’s a good idea to set out three (hidden) columns for the section number, heading and then page number. For example:
Always see how the contents page looks – more white space may be needed or less? References are a numbered section on the contents page. It is not called a reference list.
For a very short paper eg two pages a contents page is not used- nor an ES as explained.
This is crucial in report writing for two reasons to acknowledge the origin of the materials used and for the reader to be able to identify the exact page in the source document that you are referencing. It is NOT enough to just drop in a reference or several at the end of a paragraph or sentence– you must acknowledge as you use the source. Academic writing requires insertion of the reference at the EARLIEST OPPORTUNITY. This can be as follows:
Smith 2013: 666. or Smith 2013, p. 666.
Check marking criteria- most assignments only want recent references ie within the last five years unless the document is considered very important or seminal. Also a minimum of ten references ie valid , recent and appropriate references is often in the marking criteria. Turnitin can verify dates of publications.
Common referencing mistakes:
If only a few words are used they may just flow in the text eg Smith (1999: 16) concluded that “… xxx”. Longer quotes need to be set out properly ie indented, single spaced with author year and page reference. Always page reference quotations. An example follows overleaf.
Smith 1999: 666 concluded that:
Try and get into the habit of putting the page number immediately after the year so you do not forget to include it!
A maximum of 5% in any assignment may be quoted ie 75 words in a 1500 word assignment. You are advised to use your own words because even paraphrasing can be detected with Turnitin software text matching.
All tables, graphs and charts must be numbered and titled using leading capitals. They must be talked about in the text not just left on a page to speak for themselves. Try to draw out the main point(s) you wish to make. It is also a good idea to use a text box to contain the information. The source of information contained in them must be acknowledged with a page number if not original.
Source: Smith 2002: 6. (Note that ALL sources must be page referenced, or at least table, chart number acknowledged.) Do not source to a web page rather to the document used from that web page.
2.7 Use of Op. cit and Ibid
Increasingly government reports do not use an end list at all for references but only footnotes. You do not use both. This is an option in Microsoft word. The advantage is that once you use insert reference, a number pops up in the footnote and it helps you remember to insert the reference. It also means you can use the following abbreviations:
Ibid which means you are acknowledging the reference already cited immediately above – it is exactly the same reference ie same author, year and page so just write Ibid. When citing content from a different page but same author use Ibid: p. XX. That is note the different page. Do not use a string of Ibids- it means that you have not used appropriate wording in the text to indicate continuing use of the same reference. Try also, furthermore, in addition etc. in the text to make it clear you are using the same source.
Op. cit which means you are acknowledging ONE of the references above, which means that author and year or report title and year must be included in the footnote. Be careful to acknowledge the page number.
2.8 Spelling and Grammar.
2.9 Formatting Problems.
Headings: If you use full stops in headings stick to them. Be consistent with indentation. Make sure headings are numbered. If they are minor headings use of bold may be enough.Otherwise all headings are numbered and this number matches the number provided on the CP.
Underlining: do not use this in report format. It is a cue to the printer to use bold.
Bullets: They must be led in with a clause or sentence. Make sure all points logically flow from the lead in clause. For an example see your unit outlines objectives:
Note that if the point starts with a leading capital it ends with a full stop. If you use small case then finish with a ; not a full stop.
Any number ten or less should be written in full in text, eg ten.
Acronyms – once used stick to them eg WHO, etc. As long as it is not in a heading abbreviations should be used at the first opportunity. Select edit function and then use find and replace to locate first use. If an abbreviation is used in the executive summary make sure it is repeated in the main paper because the summary must stand alone.
White space – the look of a paper can often be improved with better use of blank or “white” space. Do not cram things in – try and space it out so it looks good. Too much white space can slow the reader down and unnecessarily use more in paper. In a text book a new chapter always starts with a new page. However, if your sections are short there is no need to start a new page. For the executive summary, contents, acknowledgements, references and appendices always start a new page.
Page numbers – do not forget to number the pages.
Use of leading capitals in text. If you talk about an organisation or a department then use all small case. If you refer to the Department use a leading capital for Department eg NSW Health..
Use of commas: There is no comma before “and” or after “including”. There is always a comma after however when it used at the start of a sentence. There should be a comma before “which”.
The difference in use between : and ; must be observed. The latter is for a string of clauses in text. The “:” is to make something stand out. Most mistakes seem to be made from not holding the shift key down.
Plural has no apostrophe. Plural ie more than one, which usually only requires an “s” at the end eg doctors or some variation eg communities. Do not use an apostrophe eg its GPs not GP’s.
Possessive case – This is an unusual error but becoming more common and students put the apostrophe all over the place. Possessive case refers to something or someone belonging to another eg “the child’s mother” ie it could be reworded to “the child of the mother”. Another example: “this country’s health care system” which could be reworded to “the health care system of this country”. If in doubt reword! The best bet is to avoid using the possessive case altogether. It is not generally used in report format.
3.1 Addressing nerves: do your homework and thoroughly too. You must be able to field questions and talk confidently about the topic. If you are nervous slow breathing down, breathe more deeply. Move away from the projector so the audience looks at the overheads not at you.
3.3 Presentations skills
3.4 Overheads and Power Point:
A good idea to use so students retain the information presented and the lecturer has a reminder of what was covered. Check the marking criteria- they will have a page limit eg two pages. You do use report format ie numbered headings but no ES or CP because it’s a short doc. Also use formal language and references are marked. References on the power points or overheads may also be marked.
 Like this- but be careful- the font may be rather small like this. You can increase font size to 12 which is easier to read.
 Op. cit: Smith and Jones (2006), p. 242 or Op. cit: Smith and Jones (2006: 242). The latter is easier to type!
We value our customers, and so ensure that our papers are 100 percent original. Our Team of professionals does not miss the mark; they ensure that step by step each paper is written uniquely. We never duplicate or work as we compare papers rest assured. We deliver our work a day before time to ensure that you don’t miss your deadlines. It is not only doing the work but delivering it at the right time. We capture the consequences of late remittances. .
We value customer satisfaction here at popularessaywriters.com and make sure that you get the best value for your Money. It happens that sometimes you can pay twice for your order or may want to cancel it, or you feel that it doesn’t meet your requirements; our money back guarantee will give you the opportunity to get back your money. We will also refund 100% of money paid double. In case your paper does not satisfy your requirements , we request that you notify us via writing within 2 days otherwise on the third day we will assume that you have been satisfied. Do all your correspondences through our email address email@example.com.Read more
At popularessaywriters.com, our professional writers know the consequence plagiarism does for our clients. We have updated software’s such as article checker and copyscape to check for originality of the custom papers before submission of the final paper to the you. Our guarantee to the customer is that we will write 100% original papers for them that are quality, timely and of low cost. We have experienced professional and competent PhD writers who will write quality custom papers for you..Read more
. At popularessaywriters.com, we are proud to provide top-quality Essay writing service to our esteemed customers. We are ready to take up that challenging academic assignment that is giving you sleepless nights and simplify it for you according to your desired requirements. We are willing to revise your paper if it does not meet your requirements. At popularessaywriters.com, we do not compromise with quality; thus, we offer unlimited free revisions until the customer is satisfied with their custom paper. Our unlimited free revision services are provided under the following terms:.. .Read more
Popularessawriters.com knows that client’s information is an essential tool for our company. It means that whatever the client requests from our service is kept strictly confidential. It means that whoever writes for this company understands the terms and conditions hence you should not be worried because you will never see your work somewhere else...Read more
Rest assured that we will always be attentive to your needs and requirements. We belief in the phrase treat your neighbour as you would want them to treat you. We leave nothing to chance and always look forward to a good interaction with each other.. .Read more