answer the following questions completely and submit only your answers.Please submit your answers (without the question text).all work that you turn in must be in your own words – you will NOT earn credit for copying and pasting text from the book or from websites.
1. What are the two requirements for a genetic material?
2. Briefly describe the experiments that revealed the nature of the genetic material.
3. Briefly describe the experiments that revealed the structure of the genetic material.
4. Given the percentage of the nucleotides below, determine the percentage of all the other nucleotides (Hint:
look at Chargaff’s discovery).
a. A – 6% ? A = 6%, T = ?, C = ?, G = ?
b. C – 12% ? C = 12%, G = ?, A = ?, T = ?
c. G – 23.12% ? G = 23.12%, C = ?, A = ?, T = ?
5. What are the components of the DNA double helix?
6. Explain the basis of antiparallelism.
7. Explain the basis of complementary base pairing.
8. Below is a nucleotide sequence of a single strand of DNA. Write the sequence of the Complementary strand
indicating the appropriate 5’ and 3’ ends.
9. How are very long DNA molecules wound so that they fit inside cell nuclei?
10. Why must DNA be replicated?
11. What does semiconservative replication mean?
12. Briefly explain the steps of DNA replication.
13. How can DNA be replicated fast enough to sustain the cell?
14. How is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on DNA replication?
15. Explain how Sanger sequencing works.
16. How are many copies of DNA pieces generated to obtain the sequence?
17. Why must several copies of a genome be cut up to sequence it?
18. What are next-generation sequencing techniques?
19. Explain how the structures and functions of DNA and RNA differ.
20. Explain how messenger RNA (mRNA) transmits instructions to build proteins.
21. What is the function of transfer RNAs (tRNA) in synthesizing proteins?
22. List and briefly describe the steps of transcription.
23. Based on the sequence of the template strand of DNA below, what is the mRNA sequence?
24. What is alternative splicing?
25. What are the general characteristics of the genetic code?
26. List and briefly describe the steps of translation.
27. Based on the following mRNA sequence, what is the amino acid sequence? (You will need to use the Genetic
code on page 187)
28. How is translation economical?
29. How are proteins folded?
30. How does a cell handle misfolded proteins?
31. How can a protein that has more than one conformation cause a disease?
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